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曹雪芹与《红楼梦》

本帖最后由 ocean 于 2009-9-10 23:04 编辑

 曹雪芹(1713-1763,一说为1724-1764),字梦阮,名沾号雪芹、芹圃、芹溪。祖籍河北丰润,一说辽阳或铁岭清代小说家,是中国长篇名著《红楼梦》的作者。汉族。他出身于一个“百年望族”的大官僚地主家庭,从曾祖父起三代世袭江宁织造一职达六十年之久。后来父亲因事受株连,被革职抄家,家庭的衰败使曹雪芹饱尝了人生的辛酸。他在人生的最后几十年里,以坚忍不拔的毅力,历经十年创作了《红楼梦》并专心致志地做着修订工作,死后遗留下《红楼梦》前八十回的稿子。《红楼梦》内容丰富、情节曲折、思想认识深刻、艺术手法精湛,是中国古典小说中伟大的浪漫主义作品。



 曹雪芹的曾祖曹玺任江宁织造。曾祖母孙氏做过康熙帝玄烨的保姆。祖父曹寅做过玄烨的伴读和御前侍卫,后任江宁织造,兼任两淮巡盐监察御使,极受玄烨宠信。玄烨六下江南,其中四次由曹寅负责接驾,并住在曹家。曹寅病故,其子曹顒、曹頫先后继任江宁织造。他们祖孙三代四人担任此职达60年之久。曹雪芹自幼就是在这“秦淮风月”之地的“繁华”生活中长大的。雍正初年,由于封建统治阶级内部政治斗争的牵连,曹家遭受一系列打击。曹頫以“行为不端”、“骚扰驿站”和“亏空”罪名革职,家产抄没。曹頫下狱治罪,“枷号”一年有余。这时,曹雪芹随着全家迁回北京居住。曹家从此一蹶不振,日渐衰微。经历了生活中的重大转折,曹雪芹深感世态炎凉,对封建社会有了更清醒、更深刻的认识。他蔑视权贵,远离官场,过着贫困如洗的艰难日子。晚年,曹雪芹移居北京西郊。生活更加穷苦,“满径蓬蒿”,“举家食粥”。他以坚韧不拔的毅力,专心一志地从事《红楼梦》的写作和修订。

  乾隆二十八年(1763年),曹雪芹幼子夭亡,他陷于过度的忧伤和悲痛,卧床不起。到了这一年的除夕(1764年2月12日),终于因贫病无医而逝世,享年四十岁。曹雪芹“身胖,头广而色黑”。他性格傲岸,愤世嫉俗,豪放不羁。嗜酒,才气纵横,善谈吐。曹雪芹是一位诗人。他的诗,立意新奇,风格近于唐代诗人李贺。他的友人敦诚曾称赞说:“爱君诗笔有奇气,直追昌谷破篱樊。”又说:“知君诗胆昔如铁,堪与刀颖交寒光。”但他的诗仅存题敦诚《琵琶行传奇》两句:“白傅诗灵应喜甚,定教蛮素鬼排场。”曹雪芹又是一位画家,喜绘突兀奇峭的石头。敦敏《题芹圃画石》说:“傲骨如君世已奇,嶙峋更见此支离。醉余奋扫如椽笔,写出胸中块磊时。”可见他画石头时寄托了胸中郁积着的不平之气。曹雪芹的最大的贡献还在于小说的创作。

  他的小说《红楼梦》内容丰富,思想深刻,艺术精湛,把中国古典小说创作推向最高峰,在世界文学发展史上占有十分重要的地位。《红楼梦》是他“披阅十载,增删五次”,“字字看来皆是血,十年辛苦不寻常”的产物。今传《红楼梦》80回以后他已写完,但由于种种原因而没有流传下来。由高鹗(或只是修订者)续书。

  长篇小说《红楼梦》代表了中国古典小说的最高成就,它不但在国内家喻户晓,在世界文坛上也是举世公认的文学名著。在今天的节目里,我们就向您介绍中国杰出的小说家曹雪芹和他的《红楼梦》。


【曹雪芹与《红楼梦》】

  


 曹雪芹的祖上本是汉人,但很早就入了满族正白旗的内务府。他的家庭从曾祖父到他的父亲,都担任清王朝要职。康熙皇帝六次到南方巡视,有四次住在他的家里,由此可见曹家的豪华以及与皇室关系的亲密。曹雪芹的家庭除了是一个百年望族外,还是一个具有文学素养的家庭。他的祖父曹寅是当时著名的藏书家,还会作诗填词写剧本。


  曹雪芹的少年时代经历过一段富贵豪华的生活,但时间不长,他的父亲因事受到削职抄家的处分,曹家便急遽走向衰落。等曹雪芹成年后,流落在北京的西郊,过着贫困的生活。贵族家庭生活给曹雪芹留下了许多难以忘怀的印象,这些都为他创作《红楼梦》打下了基础。


  《红楼梦》的初名叫《石头记》,它以手抄本的形式在社会上流传时,就受到人们的喜爱。由于《红楼梦》没有完成,有很多人顺着曹雪芹的思路续写,其中高鹗续写的后40回比较好。他大体遵循了曹雪芹创作,完成了《红楼梦》悲剧的主题。有些情节处理的很精彩。1792年,一个叫程伟元的出版家把曹雪芹的《红楼梦》80回与高鹗续写的后40回合在一起出版了两次,从此《红楼梦》便在中国流行起来。
  《红楼梦》主要写的是一个悲剧的爱情故事,并以爱情故事为中心,通过一个贵族大家庭的兴衰变化,揭露了封建统治阶级的奢靡、丑恶,展示出封建社会必然走向崩溃的历史命运。


  《红楼梦》一开始,就把读者带进五光十色的荣国府。这是一个由少数主子和数百奴仆所组成的贵族大家庭。这些贵族家庭成员每天想的就是如何享乐。就在这个贵族家庭中,曹雪芹塑造出贾宝玉、林黛玉具有光彩的男女主人公,以及众多的少女形象。


  男主人公贾宝玉是贯串全书始终的人物。根据考证,这一形象中,有作者的亲身体验。贾宝玉生长在贵族之家,家族对他寄予厚望,但是他不爱读书,憎恨封建传统思想,厌恶束缚他的家庭,充满叛逆精神。由于他生活在一群美丽、单纯的侍女中间,而对生活在下层的女性饱含同情。


  少女林黛玉是曹雪芹着意刻画的女性。这个寄居在荣国府中的弱女子,有着极强的自尊心,她才华横溢而又多愁善感。她与贾宝玉两小无猜,后来成为生死相恋的情人,但最终他们的爱情被封建势力所扼杀。


  曹雪芹可谓是塑造人物的高手,在《红楼梦》中,共出现四百五十多个人物,而每个人都有自己的特色。另外,由于曹雪芹对诗词、金石、书画、医学、建筑、烹调、印染等各门学问都十分精通,所以在描写贵族家庭的饮食起居,园林建筑,家具器皿,服饰摆设,车轿排场,都真实而细腻。


  《红楼梦》问世以后,人们争相阅读它谈论它,有些青年读者,为书中的男女主人公的爱情感动的流泪。但是《红楼梦》也引起封建也官僚和封建卫道者的猛烈攻击,把它列为禁书。但无论怎么禁止,《红楼梦》仍然在群众中流传。除此外,《红楼梦》还引起人们的研究兴趣,后来被称之为“红学”。


【曹雪芹著《红楼梦》的原因】
  《红楼梦》作者曹雪芹是位石头谜,他画过石头画,写过石头诗。《红楼梦》又名《石头记》,《石头记》中的主人翁贾宝玉是“神瑛侍者”幻化成的,“大如雀卵,灿若明霞,莹润如酥,五色花纹缠护”的“通灵宝玉”,据考证就是雨花石。雨花石在南京产于“聚宝山”,在六合产于“灵岩山”,所以,曹雪芹把它神化为“通灵宝玉”。
  在乾隆年间,曹雪芹住在正白旗写《石头记》。香山的老人爱说“《石头记》记石头”。曹雪芹写的这本书,从一开始说女娲补天剩下的一块顽石,被丢弃在青埂峰下,后来随着下界的神瑛侍者身入红尘,经历了悲欢离合,炎凉世态,一直到顽石归天,全书结束,就是写的一块顽石的故事。
  曹雪芹祖上明末前居住在今辽宁铁岭西南郊腰堡大汛河村一带。在努尔哈赤的后金兵掠地时,曹雪芹的远祖曹锡远被后金的军队俘虏,给多尔衮当家奴,属正白旗包衣(“包衣”即满语“家奴”一词译音“包衣阿哈”的简称)。清朝建立以后,设立“内务府”,负责为皇帝管理财产、饮食、器用等各种生活琐事和宫廷杂物,曹家成为“内务府”的成员。曹锡远的儿子曹振彦因建立军功,官至两浙都转运盐使司盐法道。从曹振彦的儿子曹玺和曹玺的长子曹寅,曹寅的长子曹颙和侄儿曹頫,三代四人相继担任江宁织造一职。织造的职务,主要为皇帝管理制造和采办宫廷用品,但除此之外,还同时担任替皇帝搜集情报的工作,曹寅就经常向康熙密奏南方各方面的情况,包括政治、经济、文化、思想、治安、民情等等。曹家几代人担任这一职务,表明他们跟皇帝有一种特殊亲密的关系。曹玺的妻子孙氏做过康熙的保姆,康熙南巡时还在江宁织造府内接见过孙氏,称她为“吾家老人”。曹雪芹的祖父曹寅小时候曾做过康熙的伴读,以后又担任御前侍卫。曹寅在给康熙的奏折中自称“臣系包衣下贱”,说明曹家具有一种特殊的地位:对于皇帝来说是奴才,但对一般人来说,则是一个极为显赫的大官僚,是属于最高统治层中的成员。雍正继位后,曹家遭受冷落,曹頫时受斥责。雍正五年(1727)末、六年(1728)初,曹因织造差员勒索驿站及亏空公款等罪,被下旨抄家,曹頫被“枷号”,曹寅遗孀与小辈等家口迁回北京,靠发还的崇文门外少量房屋度日。曹家从此败落。经历这样家族变迁的曹雪芹,因此而获得对贵族之家种种黑暗与罪恶的深切体验,这便成为他创作《红楼梦》重要的生活基础。
Cao Xueqin
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Cao Xueqin

Eileen Chang, Ba Jin, Cao Yu, Lin Yutang  
Cao Xueqin (Chinese: 曹雪芹; pinyin: Cáo Xuěqín; Wade-Giles: Ts'ao Hsueh-ch'in, 1724[1] or 1715[2] — 1763[2] or 1764[3]) is the author of Dream of the Red Chamber, believed by many to be the greatest novel written in the Chinese language. His given name was Cao Zhan (曹霑) and his courtesy name is Mengruan (夢阮; 梦阮; literally "Dream about Ruan" or "Dream of Ruan").

Family
Cao belonged to a Han Chinese clan which later became part of the Plain White Branch (正白旗) of the Manchu Banners. Although forced into slavery (包衣) to Manchu royalty in the late 1610s, his ancestors distinguished themselves through military service and subsequently held posts in officialdom.

Under the Emperor Kangxi the clan's prestige and power reached its height. Cao Xueqin's grandfather, Cao Yin (曹寅), was a former playmate to the Emperor Kangxi, and Cao Yin's own mother was the wet nurse to the infant Emperor Kangxi. Two years after his ascension, Kangxi appointed Cao Xueqin's great-grandfather, Cao Xi (曹璽; 曹玺), as the Commissioner of Imperial Textiles in Jiangning (江寧織造; 江宁织造).

When Cao Xi died in 1684, Yin, as Kangxi's personal confidante, took over the post. Cao Yin was one of the era's most prominent men of letters and a keen book collector. By the early 1700s, the Cao clan had become so rich and influential as to be able to play host four times to the Emperor Kangxi in his six separate itinerant trips south to the Nanjing region.

When Cao Yin died in 1712, Kangxi, still in power, passed the office over to Yin's only son, Cao Yong (曹顒; 曹颙). Yong himself died in 1715. Kangxi then allowed the family to adopt a paternal nephew, Cao Fu (曹頫), as Cao Yin's posthumous son to continue in that position. Hence the clan held the office of Imperial Textile Commissioner at Jiangning for three generations.

The family's fortunes lasted until Kangxi's death and the ascension of Emperor Yongzheng to the throne. Yongzheng was much less tolerant of the debts the family chalked up in office. By 1727, after a series of warnings, he decided to confiscate the entire Cao clan's properties, including their mansion, and put Cao Fu under arrest. Many believe this purge was politically motivated. When Cao Fu was released a year later, the family, totally impoverished, was forced to relocate to Beijing. Cao Xueqin, still a young child then, followed the family in this odyssey.

Life
Almost no records of Cao Xueqin's early childhood and adulthood survive. Redology scholars are still debating Cao Xueqin's exact date of birth, though he is known to be around forty to fifty at his death. Cao Xueqin was the son of either Cao Fu or Cao Yong. It is known for certain that Cao Yong's only son was born posthumously in 1715; some Redologists believe this son might be Cao Xueqin.

Most of what we know about Cao Xueqin was passed down from his contemporaries and friends. Cao himself eventually settled in the Western suburbs of Beijing where he lived the larger part of his later years in poverty selling off his paintings. Friends and acquaintances recalled an intelligent, highly talented man who spent a decade working diligently on a work that must have been Dream of the Red Chamber. They praised both his stylish paintings, particularly of cliffs and rocks, and originality in poetry, which they likened to Li He's. Cao Xueqin died some time in 1763 or 1764, leaving his novel in a very advanced stage of completion. He was survived by a wife and at least one son.

Cao Xueqin achieved posthumous fame through his life's work. The novel, written in "blood and tears", as a commentator friend said, is a vivid recreation of an illustrious family at its height and its subsequent downfall. A small group of close family and friends appears to have been transcribing his manuscript when Cao died quite suddenly in 1763-4. Extant handwritten copies of this work – some 80 chapters – had been in circulation in Beijing shortly after Cao's death and scribal copies soon became prized collectors' items.

In 1791, Cheng Weiyuan (程偉元; 程伟元) and Gao E (高鶚; 高鹗), who claimed to have access to Cao’s working papers, published a "complete", edited 120-chapter version. This is its first moveable type print edition. Reprinted a year later with more revisions, this 120-chapter edition is the novel's most printed version. Modern scholars generally think the authorship of the 1791 ending – the last 40 chapters – to be in doubt.[2]
家道中落的富二代
曹雪芹的生活造就了《红楼梦》